The Prophet's Biography - nabi muhammad 21

The Prophet's Biography - nabi muhammad

21

Conquest of Makkah

The Quraysh finally broke the treaty of Hudaybia. They helped the tribe of Banu Bakr (their allies) with weapons and men against Banu Khuza’a (the Muslim’s allies) in which Banu Khuza’a lost a number of their men. Banu Khuza’a appealed to the Muslims for help on the basis of their allegiance to them.

All preparations were done in secret so that the Muslims could advance upon the Quraysh by surprise, guarantee victory, and minimize the loss of lives. They were able to descend upon Quraysh unexpectedly with a military force larger and better equipped than anything Quraysh had ever seen before.

The leaders of Quraysh were shocked to see the fires of the Muslim army filling the night sky. They went out to assess the situation and were dumbstruck by the sight of the Muslims’ cavalry. They were Abû Sufyân, Badîl b. Warqâ’, and Hakîm b. Hazzâm.They were led to Allah’s Messenger (r). They very soon declared their entry into Islam and their surrender. They requested a general amnesty for Quraysh and it was granted.

The move to Makkah took place in Ramadhan, 8 A.H.; the Muslim force was 10,000 soldiers.

Allah’s Messenger entered Mecca in humility, in humble devotion to Allah. When he reached the House, he broke the idols and defaced the graven images, heralding the fall of the last stronghold of idolatry, the triumph of monotheism, and the extension of Islam’s authority over the Arabian Peninsula.

BATTLE OF HUNAYN

As they began to harbor hopes of winning the laurels by bringing the Muslims upon their knees. The tribe of Hawazin saw a god-sent in the fall of Quraysh to build up their fame on the declining prestige of the Quraysh. It was the 10th of Shawwal, 8 A.H. when the army reached Hunayn (a wadi situated between Makkah and Ta’if). The Prophet (r) mobilized 12,000 soldiers, where the pagans of Hawazin came with 20,000 soldiers in addition to their women, children, and their cattle.

The result of the battle was a great victory for the Muslims over their enemy, and the captives of Hunayn numbered six thousand. The spoils included twenty-four thousand camels, forty thousand or more goats and four thousand ounces of silver.

 

THE BATTLE OF TA’IF

The reason for this battle was to get hold of the warriors of Thaqif who fled from Hunayn and made a retreat to Ta’if. This battle took place immediately after the battle of Hunain.

The Prophet (r), used for the first time catapults in the siege of Ta’if whose ingress and egress were completely blocked. The arrows shot by the enemy took its toll on the lives of several Muslims (12 soldiers). The siege continued for some twenty-five to thirty nights. Allah had not willed the fall of Ta’if. So the Prophet (r) gave orders to lift the siege and depart.

 

THE EXPEDITION TO TABUK

The purpose of the expedition was to discourage the growing belligerence of the neighboring forces to the North with a show of strength.

The move to Tabuk took place in Rajab, 9 A.H.; Tabuk was situated halfway between Madinah and Damascus, about 700 km from Madinah. The march was against Romans and their allies of the Arabian tribes of the North. The Muslim force was 30,000 soldiers.

When the Prophet saw that there was no movement of troops by the enemy who seemed to have abandoned their military mobilization of the border towns, he gave orders for the return march; the objective of the expedition having been achieved.

 

THE YEAR OF DEPUTATIONS

The Prophet of God (r) felt happy on the arrival of a deputation from Tujib. They asked questions about a number of things and the Prophet (r) got the answers to their questions written for them. Then they made a request on being told more about the Qur’an and the Sunnah which caused the Prophet (r) to express fondness for them. He instructed Bilal to entertain them well. However, they stayed but for a few days with the Prophet (r) and expressed the desire to return to their homes. When they were asked why they wanted to depart so soon, they replied, “We want to go back to tell our people how we met the Messenger of God (r), what talks we had with him and what replies he gave to our questions.” Thereafter they returned and again called upon the Prophet (r) during the pilgrimage in 10 A.H. when the Prophet (r) was at Mina. (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. II, p. 43)

Deputation also called upon the Prophet (r) from Bani Fazara, Bani Asad, Bahra and ‘Adhara, and all of them accepted Islam. The Prophet (r) promised them the capture of Syria, but forbade them to have recourse to seers for divination of the future and commanded them to cease offering the sacrifices they had been doing hitherto. He also told them that only the sacrifice on the occasion of ‘Id-ul-Adha was lawful for them. When the delegations of Bali, Dhi Murrah and Khawlan called upon the Prophet (r), he asked them about the idol of Khawlan to which they had been paying divine honors. They replied, “God bless you! God has replaced it by what has been brought by you. There are, however, a few elderly persons and senile women who are devoted to it but we will break it when we go back.

Deputations also came to the Prophet (r) from Muharib, Ghassan, Ghamid and Nakh’a. (The envoys of Arabian tribes coming to Madinah learned about Islam and its institutions, watched the graceful and genial behavior of the Prophet (r) and benefited from the company of the Prophet’s companions (may Allah be pleased with them). Tents were often set-up for them in the courtyard of the Prophet’s mosque from where they saw the Muslims offering prayers and reciting the Qur’an. They spoke plainly and frankly, asked whatever they wanted while the Prophet (r) replied to their questions in all sobriety, explained the wisdom of Islam and quoted excerpts from the scripture which were instrumental to their certitude and peace of heart.

 

THE PROPHET'S (r) CONVERSATION WITH A PAGAN

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the character of the Arabs was their openness, outspokenness or frankness to the point of being blunt and tough. The talk that Kinana b. ‘Abd Yalil, a pagan chief, had with the Prophet (r) of God illustrates the brusqueness of the sons of the desert.

Kinana said, “As for adultery, we mostly remain bachelors or cannot get married, so we must need to indulge in it.”

The Prophet (r) replied: “That is unlawful for you. God has commanded;

"and come not near unto fornication. Lo! It is an abomination and an evil way.” [Qur'an 17:32]

Kinana said again, “What you say about usury means our entire property is nothing but usury.”

“You have the right,” replied the Prophet (r), “to get back the original sum lent by you for God has ordered: “O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury, if ye are (in truth) believers.” [Qur'an 2:278]

“As regards wine,” Kinana said further, “it is the juice of our lands and a must for us.”

“Allah has forbidden it,” replied the Prophet (r) and then recited the verse:

“O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed.” [Qur'an 5:90]

 

Kinana again inquired, “What do you say about the idol Rabbah?”

“Break it,” answered the Prophet (r).

Kinana and his companions were taken aback. They protested, “If Rabbah were to know that you want to break her, she would finish all of her priests!”

‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) now intervened to say, “O ‘Abd Yalil, woe to you! How ignorant are you?” What else is Rabbah except a stone?”

Kinana and his friends replied angrily, “Ibn al-Khattab, we have not come to ask you.” Then turning to the Prophet (r) he said, “You may break it, but we cannot.”

“The Prophet (r) then said to them, “I will send someone with you who will do it for you…” “The deputation then took its leave from the Prophet (r) who gave them a send off. Before leaving for their homes they requested the Prophet (r) to appoint a leader for them. ‘Uthman b. Abi al-As was selected by the Prophet (r) to act as their leader. He was the youngest among them but the Prophet (r) had noticed his keen interest in religion and he had also learned some of the Qur’an before leaving Medinah.” (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. IV, p.25)

 

COMMANDMENT FOR ZAKAT AND CHARITY

The divine commandment making it incumbent upon the Muslims to pay Zakat i.e. a tax at a fixed rate in proportion to the worth of the property was revealed in the ninth year of the Hijrah. (Tarikh Tabri, Vol. IV, p.724)

The Prophet (r) sent the order for collection of poor-due to all the functionaries appointed in the areas where the people had accepted Islam.

 

Farewell Pilgrimage

Everything had come about as willed by Allah. The faith in One God had cleansed and illuminated the souls. The devil within had been cast away together with the vileness of the pagan past. The false deities been removed from the House of God.

Once again, the believers' hearts were set on going to the holy sanctuary for it was already a very long time since they had been there. The mission of the Prophet of God (r) was also nearing completion, as he was soon to bid farewell to his loving companions. And so, Allah permitted His Messenger to take them for pilgrimage, and thus, it was the first Hajj of the Prophet (r) in Islam.

 

EDUCATIONAL ASPECT OF THE PILGRIMAGE

The reason for the Prophet (r) setting out from Madinah for the pilgrimage were many. He had to meet the Muslims coming from far and near; to teach them the observances of faith and the rituals of Hajj; to bear witness to the truth and thus finally redeem his pledge to God; to advise them as well as to give them final instructions: to administer them an oath to follow his teachings and to trample under his feet the last remnants of the pagan past. His pilgrimage was, in truth and reality, better than a thousand sermons and lessons. It was an itinerant school, a mosque on the move or an ongoing training center which imparted knowledge to the unenlightened, animated the languid and indolent souls and invested the weak in spirit with the power of faith. All this was achieved under the benevolent and affectionate care of the greatest teacher, the Prophet of God (r).

 

UNIQUE RECORD OF THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE

The minutest details of the Prophet’s journey have been preserved by the most trustworthy narrators, the companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them). It is a record so authentic and detailed for never before did there exist any historical document of such comparable genuineness be that of an Emperor’s itinerary or of the memoirs of any saint or scholar.

A SYNOPIS OF THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE

The Prophet (r) set out from Madinah on Saturday, the 25th of Dhul Q’ada, after performing the four Noon prayer followed by a sermon in which he explained the essentials of entering the pilgrim state known as Ihram.

The Messenger of God (r) then went ahead raising his voice in praise of God: "At Your service, O God, at Your service, at Your service; You have no partner, at Your service; praise and grace art Thine, and the Dominion: You have no partner.” The entire crowd chanted this Talbiya along with the Prophet (r) where some curtailed a few words while others supplemented it with a few more in a tremor of excitement. But the Prophet (r) did not admonish them. He kept on repeating the acclamation of God until he reached ‘Araj where he encamped. Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and the Prophet (r) rode on the same dromedary.

The stages in the journey ahead were at al-Abwa, the wadi of Asfan, Saraf and then Dhi tawa where he stayed during Saturday night. It was now the 4th of Dhil Hijja. The Prophet (r) offered the morning prayer at this place and also took a bath. The caravan now bent its steps towards Makkah and entered the valley from its heights. It was an hour or so before noon when his glance fell on the K’aba. He exclaimed “O God, increase the honor and estimation, deference and awe of Your House.” And then lifting up his hands, he raised his voice to say,” God is Great”. Then he said: “Peace be upon Thee, O God; peace is from Thee; O Lord, cause us to live in peace.” The first thing he did on entering the sanctuary was to go straight to the K’aba. He kissed the black stone stationed in the south-east corner, and then moved on to encompass the K’aba seven times, commencing on the right and leaving the K’aba on the left. He went round at a slow pace.

The Prophet (r) was walking at a quicker step but the paces were not long. The seamless garment in which he had wrapped himself was thrown loosely over one shoulder, the other being left bare. Each time he passed the Hajjr Aswad, he touched it with a stick in his hand and kissed it. Thereafter he proceeded to the Station of Abraham and recited the Qur'anic verse: “Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to prayer);”
[Qur'an 2:125]

And then offered two units of prayer. Going back to the Hajr Aswad after the prayer, he kissed it again and then he brought himself to As-Safa from the opposite door. On reaching near As-Safa the Prophet (r) said,

"Lo! As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the signs of God. [Qur'an 2:158]

I begin with what Allah began with.”

So he mounted it until he could see the House of God, declared God’s Unity and proclaimed His greatness facing the Qiblah. He affirmed: “There is no god but Allah alone who has no partner, to Him belongs the dominion, to Him praises is due, and He is omnipotent, there is no god but Allah who alone has fulfilled His promise, helped His servant and alone routed the confederates.”

The Prophet (r) remained in Makkah from Saturday to Wednesday. On Thursday morning he came to Mina along-with the Muslims, performed the Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers and stayed there for the night. It was the night before Friday. After the sun had risen he moved for ‘Arafat where he saw the tent set up for him at Namirah.

God’s Messenger rested in the tent and when the sun had passed the meridian he ordered Qaswa to be brought. When it was saddled for him he went down into the valley and addressed the people wherein he explained to them the fundamental principles of Islam and struck at the roots of polytheism and ignorance. He commanded to treat as inviolable and sacrosanct the life, honor and property of every person, as warranted by all the religions, and declared that all the usages and customs of the pagan past were abolished. The Prophet (r) abolished the usury of the pre-Islamic days although he allowed the recovery of the original sums lent to the debtors. In his sermon, the Prophet (r) addressed the rights of women, threw light on the mutual obligations of the husband and wife and bade the people to deal kindly and provide food and clothing to their spouses in a fitting manner.

Thereafter, referring to the Book of Allah he told his companions that if they hold fast to it they would never fall into error. Finally, he told them that on the Day of Judgment, Allah would ask them about him, so what reply would they give on that day. The entire congregation chorused, that they would testify that he had conveyed the message and fulfilled his mission.

Then, raising his finger towards the sky, the Prophet (r) said, “O Allah, be witness”, repeating it thrice. He also asked those who are present to spread it out to those who were absent.

The sermon ended, and the Prophet (r) asked Bilal to give the call to prayer. After the call was over, he performed the noon and afternoon prayers, making only two Ra’kats for each. It was then Friday, when the Prophet (r) delivered this sermon.

The Prophet (r) then mounted his camel and came to Mauqif, the place of standing, where he remained atop the camel until sunset, lamenting, beseeching and glorifying the Lord. He appeared to be tormented and disconsolate, repeatedly raising his hands in prayer to his chest, like a man bereaved and an indigent crying for his livelihood.

He was heard saying: “O God, You hear what I say; and see where I am; and know what I conceal or reveal. Nothing can remain hidden from Thee. I am tormented, indigent and miserable, seeking refuge with thee as one who is sorrow-stricken and horrified. I acknowledge my sins and confess my faults; I call upon Thee like a beggar and cry unto Thee like an abased sinner; I beseech Thee like one who is dismayed and harassed, falling prone before Thee, and shedding tears; like one who has thrown oneself at Your feet and is licking the dust. O God, cause me not to fail in supplication to Thee; be Kind and Merciful unto me: Lo! You art the best of all those who are implored and the Most Generous of all the Bestower.”

It was then that God sent down the revelation:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you as your religion Al-Islam.” [Qur'an 5:3]

When the disc of the sun had disappeared, the Prophet (r) took Usama up behind him and wended ahead slowly, holding the halter of his camel in a way that his head, lowered in submission to God, almost touched the saddle. The Prophet (r) was repeating the Talbiya: “At Your Service, O Allah, at Your Service…” and asking the people to proceed slowly and gently. He kept raising his voice in Talbiya until he came to Muzdalifa. There he ordered Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) to give the call for prayers and performed the sunset prayer before the camels were rested and unloaded. He recited the night prayer after the camels were relieved and then went to take rest and slept till dawn.

Having performed the dawn prayer early in the morning, the Prophet (r) mounted on Qaswa and came to Mash’ar al-Haram, the sacred site in Muzdalifah, where he faced the Qibla, supplicated God and declared His Greatness until the morning light was clear. Thus he glorified God before the sun had risen. Then he left Muzdalifa with Fadl b. ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) up behind him on top of his camel, chanting the Talbia all the way. He asked Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) to pick up seven small pebbles for Rami Jimar. When he came to the middle of the valley of Muhassar, he urged his camel to go fast and passed the plain quickly for it was the place where punishment was inflicted upon the army of Abraha. The Prophet (r) came to Mina and from there to the Jamratul ‘Aqaba There he threw the pebbles after the sun had fully risen and ended it with the recitation of Talbiya.

Returning to Mina, the Prophet (r) delivered a resolute address in which he dwelt upon the sacredness of Yaum An-Nahr and the significance Allah has assigned to the day. He elucidated the honor and distinction conferred by God on Makkah over all the cities of the world and called upon the people to follow whoever guided them in accordance with the Book of Allah. Then, asking the people present there to learn the rites of pilgrimage from him, the Prophet (r) urged them not to revert to the ways of the infidels, beheading one another after him. He asked those present to convey everything he had told them to those who were absent.

Thereafter, he said: “Worship your Lord, offer prayers five times a day, observe fast for a month (in Ramadhan), obey those of you who are in authority and you shall enter the Jannah of your Lord.”

The Prophet (r) also said something to his companions on this occasion which alluded to his valediction and hence the pilgrimage came to be known as the Farewell Pilgrimage.

The Prophet (r) then went to the place of sacrifice in Mina and sacrificed sixty-three camels by his own hand – the number of sacrificial camels being analogous to the number of years he remained alive. He ordered ‘Ali to sacrifice the remaining excess number to make up a total of one hundred camels sacrificed on his behalf. The offering having been completed, he sent for the barber, got his head shaved and distributed his shaved hair among the people. Then he returned to Makkah on his mount and went round the Ka'bah again. After that he came near the well of Zamzam and drank its water without sitting down, and returned to Mina on the same day. He spent the night at Mina where he stayed until the sun had passed the meridian; then he proceeded to stone the Jamrahs and starting from the first one he went on to throw pebbles on the middle Jamrah and finally on the last one. The Prophet (r) delivered two sermons at Mina, one on the Day of Sacrifice which has been mentioned earlier and the next on the day after.

The Prophet (r) remained at the place to perform the stoning of the Jamrahs on the three days after the Day of Sacrifice, known as Ayyam-I-Tashriq. Thereafter he departed for Madinah.

When the outskirts of Madinah appeared, he raised his voice to say, “Allah is Great”, three times and then said, “There is no god but Allah. He is One, without any partner, to him belongs the dominion and the praise and He has power over all things. (We are) the returning and the repenting and the submitting and the worshipping; God has fulfilled His promise and helped His bondman and alone routed the confederates.” (Zad al-Ma'ad, Vol. I, p. 249)

The Prophet (r) entered Madinah in the broad daylight.



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Section : The Biography of the Prophet muhammad
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Date : 4/5/2010
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