The Prophet's Biography - nabi muhammad 9

The Prophet's Biography - nabi muhammad



Muhammed (r) married Khadijah (t) when he was twenty-five years of age. Khadijah, daughter of Khuwaylid, was noble and intelligent, wealthy and was respected for the quality and integrity of her heart. A widow whose age was then forty years, (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, pp. 189-90) her late husband was Abu Hala. She carried out on their business and like other merchants of Makkah she also used to hire men to transport her merchandise outside the country on a profit-sharing scheme. Khadijah was impressed with Muhammed’s truthfulness, trustworthiness and honorable character when he traded her merchandise to Syria.

Although Khadijah had turned down several offers for her hand by some of the eminent chiefs of the Quraysh, she expressed her desire to marry Muhammed (r). Hamza, an uncle of Muhammed (r), conveyed the message to him for which he readily agreed. Abu Talib recited the wedding sermon and Muhammed (r), united in wedlock with Khadijah, commenced his marital career. All the offspring of the Prophet (r) except Ibrahim who died in infancy, were born to Khadijah.




In his thirty-fifth year, Muhammed (r) made a difficult decision about a matter that provoked the Quraysh and threatened to plunge them into another sacrilegious war. The Quraysh wished to rebuild the Ka'bah and furnish it with roofs, for it was made of loose stones, and its walls were only a little higher than a man’s height. So, the walls were demolished and the work of reconstruction was taken up, but when it was time to rebuild the Ka'bah as far as the position of the Black Stone was concerned, the question arose as to who should place the sacred relic into its place. Every tribe claimed the honor; an imminent collision was bound to happen. The grounds that led to wars of attrition during the early days of paganism in Arabia were nothing but inferior or insignificant when compared to the grave issue that was made as the focal point of honor on this occasion.

Banu ‘Abdul Dar brought a bowl full of blood; then they and Banu ‘Adiy pledged themselves to fight unto death by thrusting their hands into the blood. The conflict appeared to be the starting point of a furious struggle which might have swallowed up the whole of Arabia in another of their oft-recurring wars. The dilemma continued for a few days until it was agreed that whosoever is the first man to enter the gate of the Kabah would be made as the umpire of the matter under dispute. And so the first man to enter came, but he was no other than the future Prophet of God (r). “This is Muhammed”, they said as soon as they saw him coming, and further added: “He is trustworthy and we will abide by his decision.”

Muhammed (r) asked them to bring a cloth, took the Black Stone and put it inside the fabric, then afterwards asked each tribe to take hold of an end of the material and then simultaneously raise it to the required height. When the people lifted the stone in such manner, Muhammed (r) placed it in its position with his own hands, and the building went on above it. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, pp. 192-197)

The wisdom displayed by the Prophet (r) on this occasion, one which saved the Quraysh from measuring the might of their swords with that of the others, strikingly illustrates his sound judgment apart from divulging sparks of his genius. The incident foreshadowed the signs of Muhammed's prudence, profoundness of his teachings, his thoughtfulness, cool temper and the spirit of his friendliness and altruism; in fact the cardinal virtues of one who was to become the ‘Mercy for the Worlds”. These were the qualities through which the Prophet (r) transformed a people, unruly and ferocious, continuously at war amongst each other, into a closely-knit fraternity by proving and submitting himself as a Merciful Prophet (r) before them.



It was during this period that the Quraysh came to agree upon one of the noblest covenants made in which Muhammed (r) played a prominent part. It so happened that a man from Zabid (A town in Yemen) came to sell his merchandise in Makkah. One of the Quraysh chieftains in the person of Al-As Ibn Wayel purchased the whole of it but paid nothing in return. Because of this, Zabid approached several influential Quraysh leaders but none of them agreed to confront Al-As Ibn Wayel. Having been turned down by those that he had previously asked for help, Zabid called upon the people of Makkah exhorting every bold and fair-minded young man to come to his rescue. At last, many of them, moved by embarrassment, assembled in the house of ‘Abdullah Ibn Jad’an who entertained everyone that came to his house. Thereafter, they formed a pact, in the name of Allah, for repression of acts of lawlessness and restoration of justice to the weak and the oppressed within the walls of Makkah. The covenant was called Hilful-Fudul wherein all its members finally approached Al-As Ibn Wayel and forced him to return the merchandise of Zabid. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, pp.257-59).

Muhammed (r) had been one of the prominent movers of the pact and he always made it a point to express his satisfaction over the execution of this agreement. Once he remarked: “I had a hand in making such an arrangement in the house of ‘Abdullah Ibn Jad’an to which if I were invited again to help even after the advent of Islam, I would have undoubtedly participated once more”. Through such Hilful Fudul, they had agreed to restore upon everyone what is due of him and to protect the weak from the exploits and manipulations of the oppressors.”


The Advent of Prophecy



Muhammed (r) was approaching his fortieth year. He felt a mystifying internal unrest, yet he did not know the rationale behind it. He was himself not aware what the inexplicable confusion meant to him; nor did the idea that God was about to honor him with revelation and Prophethood ever crossed his mind. This was how the Prophet (r) felt, as has been attested by God in the Qur’an:

“And thus We have inspired in thee (Muhammed) a Spirit of Our Command. You knewest not what the Scripture was, nor what the Faith. But We have made it a light whereby We guide whom We will of our bondmen. And Lo! You verily dost guide unto a right path.” [Qur'aan 42:52]


At another place, the inability of the Prophet (r) to know the reason for his internal unrest has been demonstrated in these words:

“You hast no hope that the Scripture would be inspired in thee; but it is a mercy from Your Lord, so never be a helper to the disbelievers.” [Qur'aan 28:86]

It pleased the Will of God, All-wise and All-knowing, that His Prophet (r) should remain a stranger to the arts of reading and writing. His contemporaries could thus never accuse him of himself editing the divine revelations. This, too, has been subverted by the Qur’an to settle the matter as evidenced by the following verse:

“And You (O Muhammed) was not a reader of any Scripture before it, nor didst You write it with Your right hand, for then might those have doubted, who follow falsehood.” [Qur'aan 29: 48]


That is why the Qur’an calls him an 'unlettered Prophet (r)'.

"Those who follow the messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find described in the Torah and the gospel (which are) with them—He commands them for Al-Maruf (monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbids them from Al-Munkar (disbelief and all that Islam forbids)” [Qur'aan 7:157]



Often Muhammed (r) preferred the solitude of Cave Hira where he remained for as many days as the provision with him required, spending his nights in vigils and prayers, in the manner he thought reminiscent of the way of Ibrahim (u).

It was the 17th Ramadan/ 6th August, 610 AD of the year following the fortieth year of the Prophet (r). Muhammed (r) was wide-awake and fully conscious when the Angel Gabriel came to him and said: “Read”. Muhammed (r) answered truthfully, “I cannot read.” The Prophet (r) related that the Angel took and pressed him until he was distressed, after which he released him and said again, “Read.” The Prophet (r) replied for the second time, “I cannot read.” The Angel again pressed him tightly until he felt squeezed and then letting him go, said, “Read.” When the Prophet (r) replied once again, “I cannot read,” he took him and pressed tightly a third time in the same manner. He then let the Prophet (r) go and said:

Read (O Muhammed) in the name of Your Lord who createth,
Createth man from a clot. Read: and Your Lord is the Most Bounteous, Who teacheth by the pen, Teacheth man that which he knew not.
[Qur'aan 96:1-5]



Upset and frightened by the strange experience which had never occurred to him earlier or having not heard of the same prior incident, the Messenger of God (r) came back with verses, his heart trembling, and went to Khadijah and said: “Wrap me up, wrap me up!" for he still felt horrified.

Khadijah asked the reason for the Prophet's (r) restlessness and the latter told her what had happened. Khadijah (May Allah be pleased with her) was intelligent and prudent and had heard a great deal about the messengers of God, Prophethood and angels from her cousin Waraqa Ibn Naufal (who had embraced Christianity and familiarized the Torah and Gospels). She was herself dissatisfied with the pagan cult of the Makkahns like several other enlightened ones who had broken away from the idol worship.

Khadijah was the wife of the Prophet (r). She had spent many years with him as the closest companion and knew him like she knew herself. By that alliance, Khadijah became the most reliable and credible testament of the nobility of her husband’s character. Worthiness of his moral fiber had convinced her that succor of the Lord would in any case stand by such a man. She knew in her heart of hearts that the good grace of God could never allow one so high-minded, truth-loving, trustworthy and upright man such as her husband, to be possessed by a jinn or a devil. And so she assured him with domineering self-confidence: “By no means; I swear to God that He would never embarrass you. Because you consolidate and salvage relationships, you speak the truth, you bear peoples’ burdens, you help the destitute, you entertain guests and you relieved the pain and grief suffered for the sake of truth.” (Mishkat al-Masabih, Vol. IV, p. 1253)



Khadijah had tried to comfort and encourage her husband on account of what she thought was correct or on the basis of her own knowledge and understanding. But the matter was serious, crucial and imperative. She had no peace of mind until she had consulted someone knowledgeable of the revealed religions, their history and scriptures, as well as the biography of the earlier Prophet's of God (u). Khadijah wished to know for sure what had befallen her husband.

Khadijah knew that Waraqa Ibn Naufal was the man who could clarify the matter. She took the Prophet (r) to Waraqa and when the Prophet (r) told him what he had seen and heard, Waraqa cried out, “Verily by Him in whose hand is Waraqa’s soul, Lo, You art the Prophet of this people. There hath come unto thee the greatest Namus, (Archangel Gabriel) who came unto Moses at his time. A day will come when You wilt be called a liar, Your people wilt maltreat thee, cast thee out and fight against thee.” The Prophet (r) was surprised to hear Waraqa’s premonitions for his fellow citizens had always received him with courtesy and esteem. They addressed him as the trustworthy and honest. Holding his breath in amazement, he demanded from Waraqa, “What! Will they expel me?” “Yes”, (replied) Waraqa, “For no man has ever brought anything like what You hast brought without being opposed and fought by his people, which hath always been so. If I live to see that day, I shall stand by thee.”

The Prophet (r) waited, day after day, but no revelation came for a long time. Then, it began again, so the revelation of the Qur’an started to manifest itself little by little and then in quick succession and was completed throughout the entire period of twenty-three years.


The First Muslims



Khadijah, the Prophet's wife, was the first believer in the new faith. She had the opportunity of being his companion and helper, his consort and supporter. She always stood behind him, consoling and giving him support against all those who denied and scorned him. She tried to relieve his apprehensions and encouraged him by reinforcing her trust in him.



‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib was the next to enter in the fold of Islam. He was then a youth of ten years, and had been brought up under the guardianship of the Prophet (r) since his early childhood. The Prophet (r) had taken the charge of ‘Ali from his uncle Abu Talib, and kept him as a member of his family since the time a grievous famine befell Quraysh. The third person to accept Islam was Zayd Ibn Haritha who was a freeman of the Prophet (r) and whom he had adopted as his son).



Acceptance of the Prophet's faith by Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Quhafa, after Zayd, was of no minor significance. This merchant of sociable nature was known for his moderation and prudence, good character and kindliness, and enjoyed a still greater reputation for his wide knowledge of the genealogy of the Quraysh and expertise in commerce. He began to preach the truth that he had affirmed himself to all those that he had relied upon including those who are associated with him or those who came to seek his company. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, pp. 249-59)

The persuasive businessman began to win over the elite of the Quraysh to place their trust in the mission of the Prophet (r). Those who accepted Islam at invitation of Abu Bakr included ‘Uthman Ibn Affan, Zubayr Ibn Al ‘Awwam, 'Abdul Rahman Ibn Auf, S’ad Ibn Abi Waqqa and Talha Ibn ‘Ubaydullah. Abu Bakr brought all of them to the Prophet (r) upon whose hands they embraced Islam. (Ibn Hisham, pp. 150-51)

Slowly, the mission of the Prophet (r) was made known to other respectable citizens of Makkah and some of them who followed after the first eight were:

Abu ‘Ubayda Ibn al-Jarrah, Al-Arqam, ‘Uthman Ibn Maz’un, ‘Ubaydah Ibn al-Harith Ibn Abdul Muttalib, Sa’id Ibn Zayd, Kahbbab Ibn Al-Aratt, ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’us, ‘Ammar Ibn Yasir, Suhayb Ibn Sinan and others.

People now began to accept Islam in large numbers; they came in throngs from different tribes and families until the news spread throughout the city that Muhammed taught some sort of a new faith. (Ibn Hisham, pp. 262)

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Section : The Biography of the Prophet muhammad
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Date : 4/5/2010
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