zakah zakat 1

zakah zakat

Sheikh Abdul-Azeez ibn Baaz

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All Praises are due to Allah alone, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him (Muhammad r) after whom there is no Prophet, and upon his family, companions.

To proceed:

I wrote this treatise in order to sincerely advise and remind [the Muslims] about the obligation of Zakaah, a matter in which many Muslims have been too careless and lenient. Many do not offer their Zakaah in accordance to what has been legislated in the religion, despite its greatness and its being one of the five pillars of Islam without which it (Islam) cannot stand. The Prophet (r) said:

“Islam has been built (by Allah) upon five: The testimony (Shahaadah) that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (Laa ilaaha ill-Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasoolullaah); establishing Salaah, giving Zakaah, Fasting (Sawm) the month of Ramadan, and performing Hajj to the House [of Allah] (the Ka’bah).” (Bukhari and Muslim)

The fact that Zakaah is an obligation upon the Muslims is one of the most apparent indications of the beauty of Islam and the concern it has for its adherents. The benefits of Zakaah are indeed numerous, and [it has been made obligatory] due to the dire need of the poor amongst the Muslims.

 

From its benefits are the following:

1. It strengthens the bonds of love between the rich and the poor, for it is from human nature that a person shows affinity to those who treat them well.

2. It purifies and cleanses the soul and distances it from greed and avarice, as indicated in the Noble Qur`aan when Allah (I) says:

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“Take Sadaqah (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it.” [Surah at-Tawbah (9):103]

3. It causes Muslims to grow accustomed to performing acts of generosity, hospitality and empathy towards those who are in need.

4. It brings increase and blessings to one’s wealth, and Allah replaces it (the wealth given as charity with something better), as Allah (I) said:

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“And whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah's Cause), He will replace it. And He is the Best of providers.” [Surah as-Saba´ (34):39]

In a Saheeh (authentic) hadeeth, the Prophet (r) said:

“O child of Adam! Spend in charity and We (Allah) will spend on you.”[1]

There are numerous other benefits that may be found in the legislation of Zakaah.

A severe warning has been issued to those who do not offer Zakaah out of greed as well as those who fall short in doing so. Allah (I) said:

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“And those who hoard up gold and silver [al-kanz: the money, the Zakaah of which has not been paid], and spend it not in the Way of Allah, - announce unto them a painful torment. * On the Day when that (al-kanz: money, gold and silver, etc., the Zakaat of which has not been paid) will be heated in the Fire of Hell and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs, (and it will be said unto them): ‘This is the treasure which you hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what you used to hoard’.” [Surah at-Tawbah (9):34-35]

Any type of wealth from which Zakaah has not been offered is regarded as hoarded up treasure (al-kanz) for which one will be punished on the Day of Judgement. This has been indicated in the saheeh hadeeth in which the Prophet (r) said:

“No owner of gold or silver who does not offer its due right (Zakaah) except that in the Day of Judgement, plates of fire will be beaten out for him, and they will be heated in the Fire of Jahannam (Hell) and their flanks, foreheads, and their backs will be branded with them. Whenever they will cool, it will be done again to them, on a Day of which its length is fifty thousand years, until [Allah] judges between all [His] slaves. He will see his path, either to Jannah (Paradise), or to Jahannam.” (Muslim)  

The Prophet then further mentioned (in the hadeeth) that one who owns camel, cattle, and sheep and does not offer the Zakaah due upon it will be punished through them on the Day of Judgement.

It has also been authentically reported of the Messenger of Allah (r) that he said:

“Whomever Allah has provided with wealth and does not offer the Zakaah due upon it, on the Day of Judgement it will be made into a baldheaded poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes. The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and say, ‘I am your wealth, I am your hoarded treasure!’ The Prophet (r) then recited Allah’s saying:

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‘And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allah has bestowed on them of His Bounty (Wealth) think that it is good for them (and so they do not pay the obligatory Zakaah). Nay, it will be worse for them; the things which they covetously withheld shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection.’ [Surah Aali ‘Imraan (3):180][2]

 

Wealth upon which Zakaah is Due

 

Zakaah has been made obligatory upon four categories of wealth:

1)      Grains and fruits produced by the earth,

2)      Grazing or herding animals which feed freely from the earth,

3)      Gold and silver,

4)      And inventory (stock) with which one does business.

For each of these categories, there is a specified amount under which Zakaah is not obligatory (termed as ‘nisaab’).

 

 

Fruits and Grains

 

The nisaab for fruits and grains is 5 ‘wasaq’, and one wasaq is equal to 60 saa’ measured during the time of the Prophet (r). This amount, measured according to the saa’ during the time of the Prophet (r), such as dates, raisins, wheat, rice, barley, and their likes, is equal to 300 saa’ according to the saa’ during the time of the Prophet (r). [One saa’] is equal to 4 handfuls of an average sized man.[3]

The amount which is due upon fruits and grains [if it reaches the nisaab] is 10% if the date-palms or plants relied upon natural means for water, such as rain, rivers, flowing streams and their likes.

If they relied on unnatural means for water, such as using animals to water or machines which lift water or their likes, the amount which is due upon them is 5%, as has authentically been reported by the Messenger of Allah (r)[4].

 

 

Grazing Animals

 

The nisaab for camels, cattle and sheep which fed from natural grazing has been detailed in various authentic hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (r), and one who desires knowledge about this may ask the scholars about them. If it were not that we seek not to lengthen [this treatise] we would have mentioned them in order to gain the most benefit.

 

 

Gold and Silver

 

The nisaab for silver is 140 miskals. In the currency of Saudi Arabia, this is equal to 56 riyals. The nisaab for gold is 20 miskals, which is equal to 11 3/7 pounds, equal to 92 grams.

The amount which is due upon them is 2.5 % of the total amount if it reached the nisaab and was in his continuous possession for a period of one [Hijri] year.

Profits must be calculated with the original stock, and it is not a condition that they be in a person’s possession for a period of one year, just as the newborns of herding animals are totaled along with the animals. If the original amount [of gold and silver] has reached the nisaab, it is not condition that the profits be in one’s possession for the period of one year (i.e. Zakaah must be paid on the whole amount).

 

Paper Currency

The paper currency and coined money which people use today come under the ruling of gold and silver, whether they be called Dirhams, Dinars, Dollars, or anything else. If its value reaches the nisaab of silver or gold and it is in a person’s possession for a period of one year, Zakaah becomes due upon it.

Jewelry

Gold and silver jewelry also comes under the [general] ruling of gold and silver. If its weight reaches the nisaab and it is in possession for a period of one year, Zakaah becomes obligatory upon it. This is the case even if the jewelry was actually worn by the owner or lent to others [and not just stored for later use or profit] according to the correct of the two opinions which the scholars hold. This is due to the general wording of the Prophet (r) when he said:

“No owner of gold or silver who does not offer its due right (Zakaah) except that in the Day of Judgement, plates of fire will be flattened for him…”

…as mentioned previously.

It has also been confirmed of the Prophet (r) that he saw two gold bangles on the hand of a woman and he said:

“Do you offer the zakaah for this?” She replied, “No.” He said, “Are you pleased that Allah encloses you with two bangles of fire on the Day of Judgement?” So she threw them and said, “They are for Allah and His Messenger.” (Abu Dawud and an-Nasaa`i with a Hasan chain of narration)

It has authentically been reported of Umm Salamah (t) that she wore some gold jewelry, and so she said, “O Messenger of Allah! Is this regarded as hoarded wealth (al-Kanz)? He (r) replied,

“Whatever had reached the amount liable for Zakaah, and then Zakaah is paid upon it, it is not regarded as hoarded wealth (al-kanz).”

There are also other hadeeth mentioned in this regard


[1] Narrated by as-Suyuti in ‘Al-Jaami’ as-Sagheer’. Declared saheeh by Al-Albani.

[2] Al-Bukhaari.

[3] One saa’ is equal to about 3 kilograms of rice.

[4] In a hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari:

“The amount due upon that which is watered by the sky or streams, or was.. is a tenth, and what was fed by (manual) watering a twentieth.”



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Section : zakah zakat
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Date : 2/5/2010
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